Isa4:3; Jer1:5). In the second instance Mark6:20; cf. Matt14:5; Luke9:7-9) Herod Antipas fears to put John the Baptist to death because he was a righteous and holy (hagios) man.
4. The Special Material in Matthew and Luke. Apart from the four savings of Jesus discussed above Matthew's special material refers only once more to holiness. Matt27:52-53 narrates that upon the death of Jesus "the tombs also were opened, and many bodies of the holy who had fallen asleep were raised, and coming out of the tombs after His resurrection they went into the holy city and appeared to many." Whatever the origin of this tradition, whether in a saying of Jesus (cf. John5:25) or in Jewish Christian apocalypticism (cf. Dan7:18-27), the holy ones became in the course of the 2nd century c.e. identified with the Hebrew prophets (Ign. Phld.5:2), thus expanding again already existing conceptions of who constituted the holy ones of the end time.
In Luke's special material holiness is an attribute of GOD's name or of those set apart for His service. The texts appear only in the infancy narrative (Luke1:35,49,70,72; 2:23). At the Annunciation Luke writes, for example, that "the Child to be born will be called holy [hagios]. "The view that the summons to holiness takes place through a "calling" (kalein) in traditional (cf. Isa4:3; 35:8; 62:12; klete hagia, "holy assembly:" Ex12:16; Lev23:2: passim). Mary's hymn of praise, the Magnificat, celebrates GOD's holy name (hagion to onoma autou), and if Ps110:9 LXX lies behind this verse (Fitzmyer, Luke AB, 368), then "holy" is equivalent here to "awe-full" (phoberon).
5. Acts of the Apostles. The 14 occurrences of hagios and cognates in Acts (apart from its use in the "Holy Spirit") reflect conventional Jewish usage. Eight belong to kerygmatic and sermonic material (3:14, 21; 4:27, 30; 7:33; 20:32; 26:10, 18); three to the traditions of Peter in Lydda, Joppa (9:32, 41), and the seacoast city of Caesarea (10:22); and three to the charges raised against Paul (9:13; 21:28) and Stephen (6:13). In Peter's sermon at Solomon's portico Jesus is identified as the holy and righteous One (3:14: ho hagios kai dikaios; cf. 4:27, 30; otherwise of John the Baptist at Mark6:20). Among the earliest christological titles, "the holy and righteous One" and "the holy Servant" (pais) combine traditional Jewish designations for Moses (Wis11:1), the Suffering Servant (Isa53:11), and Elijah (2Kings4:9) and apply them to Jesus (Fuller 1965: 48).
In another sermon Peter calls the prophets of old holy (3:21; cf. Luke1:70), while the charge against Stephen is that he "never ceases to speak words against this holy place" (6:13; cf. Matt24:15; in ancient Jewish piety a favorite circumlocution of GOD's name was hammaqom "the place," while the graves of saints in late antiquity were known simply as ho topos, "the place" [cf. 1 Clem 5:7]).
In Paul's farewell discourse at Miletus and in his defense speech before Herod Agrippa II, holiness becomes a category of social and religious identity Paul commends the assembled Miletians to GOD and His word, who will give them "the inheritance among all those who are made holy."
(20:32). Likewise, before Agripppa, Paul says that it is "the holy ones" (26:10: cf. 9:13) whom he formerly persecuted, before GOD called him to preach the gospel to the Gentiles so "that they receive a portion among those who are made holy by faith in Me" (26:18). Here Paul identifies faith as the social and religious wellspring of holiness.
At Joppa Peter seeks out believers described as the holy ones and the widows (9:41; cf. 9:32), a designation which suggests that while "the holy ones" serves as a blanket designation for "believers," there are also nuances to be considered, since the category of "holy" may from time to time mark a special role or function in early Christianity (cf. Eph4:11-12; Heb13:24; Rev11:18).
CCCInc. Note: GOD's word says saints not sinners,
and is never a blanket designation for all believers.
6. Paul. Of the undisputed letters of Paul, Romans, 1Corinthians, 2Corinthians, and Philippians begin and end by addressing themselves to Christian communities whose members are designated as holy. Among the disputed letters, Ephesians and Colossians open in this manner. Philemon and the Thessalonian letters do not use this form of opening address, and hagios and cognates are completely wanting in Galatians. In Rom1:7 and 1Cor1:2 the addressees are "those called holy" (kletoi hagioi). According to 1Cor1:2 the addressees enjoy this status because they are "made holy in Christ."
CCCInc. Note: Galatians is addressed to (holy) brethren Gal1:11; 3:15, proven in 4:6,7 into chapter 5
referring to them as in Christ.
For Paul, Jesus incarnates holiness (hagiasmos; cf. 1Cor1:30). A pre-Pauline formula says that Jesus was designated son of GOD at His resurrection "according to the Spirit of holiness" (kata pneuma hagiosynes, Rom1:4).
At the end of Romans Paul encourages the Church to receive Phoebe the deaconess in a manner "worthy of the holy ones" (16:2), and to "greet Philologus ... and all the holy ones" (16:15). Similarly at the end of 1Corinthians (16:15), 2Corinthians (13:13), and Philippians (4:21) Paul uses the designation "the holy ones" as an epithet for the faithful, proven, and tested.
Within the general designation of few believers as the holy ones there are special usages that derive from Paul's own theological and pastoral concerns. There is first the special status accorded the Jerusalem Church, most visible in the collection for its benefit. Everywhere except in Galatians, where the word "holy" is missing and the collection is a "remembering of the poor," the subscriptions of the Gentile churches are earmarked for the holy ones. Paul prays at Rom15:16 that the Holy Spirit will render holy the gifts of the Gentile churches. From Corinth, Paul traveled to Jerusalem "to relieve the holy ones (Rom15:25)," bringing Macedonia's and Achaia's donation "for the poor among the holy ones at Jerusalem" (15:26) in the hope that