will be judged (1Cor6:3).
E. The Corporate Election of Israel
Particularly in Deuteronomy, Israel as a national whole is the "chosen" people of GOD, as in Deut7:6 "For you are a people holy to the LORD your GOD; the LORD your GOD has chosen you to be a people for His own possession, out of all the peoples that are on the face of the earth" (see Deut10:15; 14:2; Ps105:6, 43; Isa41:8). Election is coupled with the demand for holiness, since the elect nation must reflect the divine character.
It is an oversimplification to say that the older idea of corporate election gives way to individual election in NT theology. In the OT too, there is progression toward a doctrine of individual election for members or the "remnant" (ROTT 2: 21-22). Even in the days of the prophets it was clear that "not all Israel is Israel." The doctrine of individual election developed out of the hope of the holy and elect remnant. In Isa65:9, "my chosen" form a distinct group within greater Israel who will find eschatological blessing (cf. also Isa10:20-23 and Isa14:1 - GOD "will again choose Israel").
Paul bases his pivotal discussion in Romans9-11 on the dismissal of the Gospel by the majority of Jews. Paul has to explain why the "chosen people" are rejecting Jesus Christ. He thus reaches back to the remnant concept: history and revelation disclose that within the nation Israel there exist two classes: the unbelieving descendants of Abraham, and the elect believing remnant which GOD spares from downfall. Paul argues that the remnant of Israel (of which he is a part, Rom11:1-2) is now turning to Christ in belief through the preaching of the Gospel (Rom11:7). This remnant is "chosen by grace" (Rom11:5) and was foreknown (Rom11:2).
G. The Election of Individuals to Salvation
In the apocalyptic literature and the literature of the Qumran community (especially CD) individual election comes to the fore more than it does in the OT; this was in order to distinguish the true saints from "false" Israel (TNDT 4: 170-71). But in the NT there is a bridge to the new nation, composed of Jews and Gentiles. The election of Gentiles is only broadly foreshadowed in the OT (see Amos9:12, in which the "nations" are called by GOD's name).
1. "The Elect" in the Synoptic Tradition. There are a cluster of references in which Jesus speaks of "the elect" (from eklektos), usually in connection with the tribulation (Matt24:22, 24, 31; Mark13:20, 22, 27; Luke18:7). In its present setting, Luke18:7 claims GOD's general protection of His own. Nevertheless, eschatological events uncover whether an individual is elect (Pannenberg 1977: 55): although "many will fall away" (Matt24:10) the elect may be deceived by false christs and false prophets (Matt24:24). Then at His coming, the Son of Man will "gather His elect."
(Matt24:31). The fact of being elect is eschatologically revealed: "For many are called, but few are chosen" (Matt22:14).
2. Election in Pauline Theology. In the Synoptic Gospels it is seldom explicit that it is GOD who chooses individuals. But Paul (with the Fourth Evangelist) develops the concept of election from a more theocentric standpoint. Here eklegomai and its synonyms have GOD as their subject: "GOD chose you from the beginning to be saved in sanctification by the Spirit and belief in the truth" (2Thess2:13).
In 1Cor1:27-28, Paul analyzes the composition of the Church and makes it clear that the appeal of the Gospel to the lower classes is not merely sociologically defined. While this passage could be taken to refer to corporate election (TDNT 4: 174), individual election is logically demanded in 1:24, 26. The fact that the socioeconomic makeup of the Church is under GOD's control, is not accidental. And control over the Church's composition demands control over its parts.
Paul develops the doctrine of election further in Rom8:28-38. GOD's choice of the individual is typically underscored in times of persecution. In 8:29-30 Paul sets forth an ordo salutis, and illustrates graphically and grammatically, that GOD does not lose any men or women between His choice in eternity past to their glorification (the "elect" first appear in 8:33). He seems to make election synonymous with "foreknew" in 8:29. Meanwhile, predestination is the next logical step, GOD's determination that the elect shall be Christlike. Paul speaks of "us" as those who are truly elect, not those who merely profess faith and then refuse to obey Christ, but those who persevere through tribulation to the end. Paul's emphasis on perseverance as well as preservation by GOD dovetails nicely with the promise of Matt24:24.
In Pauline thought, the OT doctrine of the remnant points to personal election, that GOD has elected both Jews and Gentiles to be saved. One may therefore adduce the statements of Romans9-11 as data for the doctrine of individual election.
CCCInc. Note: GOD's true Israel is holy Israel, or true Jews - Rom2:29, so, true elect are Jews in Christ, so, Rom11:26 is the holy elect.
The modern trend is to read Romans9-11 as a treatise on the nature of Israel rather than a theology of election (Kummel 1973: 232). But the passage must be read in the light of its two connects, both with the issue of Jewish salvation, and with his treatment of soteriological election in Rom8:28-38. Far from being limited to one idea in Romans9-11, the context indicates that Paul is speaking both of Israel's destiny and election to salvation.
Paul seldom theologizes out of context. So following his description of GOD's election, he applies the doctrine to the problem of Jewish unbelief. He shows that the reason Jews